The EUCLID project is developing pest management solutions across several crops for a diverse group of insects and diseases. They will be judged by how they support end-users through short-term economic benefits, longer term environmental sustainability, social impacts and consumer preferences. At a broader policy level they may also be judged in terms of how they support market introduction and maintenance of novel technologies, stimulate scientific knowledge, and promote wider economic competitiveness.


Indicators are widely used to express the state and direction of change in the economy or the environment. They may describe a current condition of a crop or the environment, the performance or impact of a management action, its efficiency, or some measure of welfare related to its outcome. Indicators should be practical and efficient, and should be accompanied by appropriate metrics so that the values of the indicators can be measured.

EUCLID partners Venice International University and Imperial College London carried out a review of over 80 published recent reports on pest management indicators. From the long list of indicators evident in the literature a shorter list is shown below. These cover elements identified within categories of Efficacy, Cost, Environment, Health, Consumer preference and Management. Broad policy issues could be related to any of these, depending on the orientation of the policy concerned.

Indicators and example metrics relevant to end-users of specific IPM measures:


Indicators Example Metrics
Performance Target pest mortality
Safety to users Mammalian toxicity
Cost €/ha for use
Environmental impact Ground water contamination
Aquatic species mortality
Bird mortality
Bee mortality
Beneficial species mortality
Energy use  KJoules/ha for use
Compatibility with other measures Index of limitation/opportunity
Market standards Maximum residue level (MRL) standards
Appearance standards
Good agricultural practice (GAP) standards
Health impact on consumers Maximum residue limit (MRL)
Harvest interval
Time carrying out measure  Man-hours
Management effort (to plan, supervise, etc)      Man-hours, specific skills or training
Independence from other managers Management unit size needed for effective implementation of measure


Developers, potential users of pest management measures and other stakeholders need to identify specific indicators relevant to the particular measures and objectives related to their individual interests or concerns. No single indicator can fully represent the outcomes of any measure. Some composite indicators have been identified, but even these do not cover the full spectrum of issues. For example, most composite indicators in the review relate to complex environmental impacts of pesticides, while others cover a range of cost or management issues.

The final test of any pest management measure is its adoption in the industry and the satisfaction of users and consumers. The EUCLID project is designing each of its novel control developments from the start with a broad set of indicators already in mind to ensure that innovations meet specific measurable outcomes that reflect the needs of the diverse participants in the market, from growers to consumers, and the wider environment, now and into the future.